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Cyril Ndegeya

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Abakunze kugera ku bibuga by’indege cyangwa abagize amahirwe yo kubona uko indege ya gisivili(ikora ubucuruzi bwo gutwara abantu n’ibintu mu kirere) iguruka no kuyigendamo mwaba mwarabonye ko ibanza kugenda ku butaka yihuta umwanya runaka mbere yo kuzamuka mu kirere, ibi ariko ntibireba za Kajugujugu(helicopters) ndetse na zimwe mu ndege z’intambara zitari kajugujugu.

Kugirango indege rero ibashe kuva hasi no kumenya umuvuduko usabwa kuri icyo gikorwa, hari ibisabwa ndetse hari n’ibigomba kwitonderwa n’abayitwaye aho baba bagomba kwegeranya no kugereranya amakuru menshi bitewe n’ibintu bitandukanye.

Hari umuvuduko ubanza kugerwaho mbere yo kuva ku butaka

Bimwe mu byitabwaho twavuga nk’ indeshyo y’umuhanda igurukiraho, uburemere ihagurukana(ubwayo bwite hiyongereyeho abantu n’ibintu itwaye byose), ibipimo by’ubushyuhe n’ubukonje buhari(temperatures),uburyo umuhanda igurukiraho umeze muri ako kanya(niba urimo amazi cg wumye neza),imbaraga za moteri ziri bukoreshwe,icyerekezo n’umuvuduko w’imiyaga iri kuri icyo kibuga n’ibindi bitandukanye… ibi byose rero bituma muri iyi nkuru ntashobora kukubwira umuvuduko runaka indege igurukiraho bitewe n’uko nyine buri rugendo ruba rwihariye kuri byinshi muri ibi maze kubabwira, cyakora amakuru twahawe n’umwe mu bazitwara avuga ko iyi mivuduko ishobora kubarirwa hagati ya kilometero 195 na 290 kw’isaha(195-290km/h)

Indege ikenera guhura n’umuyaga mwinshi kugirango uyifashe kuzamuka

Muri rusange hari inzego eshatu(3)z’imivuduko isabwa kugirango indege ibashe kuva ku butaka:

V1:Uyu ni umuvuduko indege iba igezeho ku buryo icyizere cyo kuba yakongera guhita ihagarara itararenga umuhanda ihagurukiraho(runway cg piste d’atterrissage) kiba ari gicye cyane ni ukuvuga ko mu gihe aba pilotes bahuye n’ikibazo batari bagera kuri uwo muvuduko(nka moteri igize ikibazo runaka) bagombye guhita bahagarika indege kuko akenshi biba bigishoboka kubera ko ikibazo kivutse mbere yo kugera kuri uwo muvuduko, umu pilote aba agisigaranye umuhanda uhagije wo kuba yayihagarika,uyu rero ni umuvuduko ufatirwaho icyemezo cya nyuma cyo guhagarara cyangwa gukomeza igikorwa cyo kugurutsa indege.Ibi nanone bisobanuye ko iyo ikibazo kigaragaye nyuma y’uyu muvuduko wa V1, umupilote agomba byanze bikunze gukomeze kugurutsa indege nyuma hagashakwa uburyo bwo kuyigarura ku kibuga kugirango ikibazo gikemurwe.

Ibi ariko siko bihora bimeze ku ndege ntoya zitaremereye(izitwara ba mucyerarugendo cyangwa zigirwaho n’abanyeshuli) kubera ko igihe umupilote agize ikibazo amaze kurenga V1, amahirwe yo kuyihagarika aba akiri menshi kuko bitayisaba imbaraga nyinshi mu guhagarara kwayo bityo umu pilote yareba agasanga umuhanda asigaranye uhagije akaba yafata icyo cyemezo cyo kuyihagarika nubwo yaba yarenze wa muvuduko wa V1 akabikora igihe cyose abona ko bitari buhungabanye umutekano w’abagenzi atwaye cyangwa we ubwe niba ari wenyine(safe operation)

Amategeko akurikizwa no ku ndege nto zo mu cyiciro cyizwi nka light aircraft

Vr(Rotation speed):Kuri uyu muvuduko nibwo umupilote atangira kugira ibyo akorera aho yicaye bituma indege itangira kuzamura igice cyayo cy’imbere(nose pitch)iki kikaba ari nacyo gice kibaho amapine y’imbere, bivuze ko ariyo atangira kuva hasi bitewe nanone n’uko imbaraga umuyaga urimo gushyira ku mababa y’indege zimaze kuba nyinshi kurenza bwa buremere bw’indege(bwakagombye kuyigumisha hasi), ikigero cyo gutumbagira kw’indege giturutse kuri uwo muvuduko kikaba hagati ya degree 2 na 3 ku i segonda(2 -3 degrees/sec) ugereranyije n’umuhanda igurukiyeho,iki kigero kikaba gituma umupilote yizera ko indege itari burarame  cyane ku buryo mu kuguruka yakoza igice cy’inyuma hasi(tail strike),uyu muvuduko kandi nawo ukaba umenyekana nyuma yo gukora indi mibare ku makuru ajyanye n’ibya ngombwa byose navuze haruguru byitabwaho mbere y’uko indege ihaguruka.

Mu kuguruka hirindwa ko indege yakoza igice cy’inyuma hasi n’ubwo hagenwe uburyo buyirinda kwangirika cyane igihe bibaye(tail strike)

V2:Uyu ukunze kwitwa mu rurimi rw’icyongereza Take off Safety Speed,ukaba ari umuvuduko wizeweho ko indege yakomeza kuzamuka mu kirere nubwo moteri imwe yaba yahagaze(aha ndavuga ku ndege zigira moteri zirenze imwe nk’izo tuzi zitwara abagenzi cyangwa imizigo), aha ni nko mu gihe ikibazo gitunguranye kuri imwe muri moteri z’indege, aha twavuga nko mu gihe hari inyoni yinjiye muri moteri indege iri mu gikorwa cyo kuguruka.

Mbere yo kuguruka inyoni zose ziri ku kibuga zigomba kwirukanwa hirindwa ko zakwinjira muri moteri mu gihe ikenewe cyane(mu kuzamuka)

Aha ni naho nanabamenyesha impamvu aba pilotes bagera mu ndege hakiri kare(nibura isaha)mbere y’uko urugendo rutangira, kugirango nyine bakurikije amakuru atandukanye na za raporo baba bahawe n’ababishinzwe bose, babashe gutegura urugendo rwabo harimo no kubara iyo mivuduko yose bari bugurukireho, ibi kandi nabwo ni nyuma y’akanama gatoya baba babanje gukorana n’abandi bakozi bose bari bukore mu ndege kugirango baze kuba bose bazi amenshi mu makuru y’ingenzi kuri urwo rugendo.

Izi nzego 3 z’umuvuduko kandi zigira igisobanuro kimwe kuri buri rwego rw’indege yaba tumwe dutoya twigirwaho, udutwara ba mucyerarugendo, kugeza ku ndege nini tuzi zitwara abantu bagera muri 500.

Ndizera ko munyuzwe n’ibisobanuro mu magambo macye kubyo mwibazaga ku muvuduko w’indege iri ku butaha.

Ufite ikindi yibaza icyaricyo cyose ku bijyanye n’ubwikorezi bwo mu kirere ndetse n’imikorere y’ibibuga by’indege yabyandika ahagenewe ibitekerezo hano munsi tukazamushakira igisubizo.

Amafoto yose:Cyril Ndegeya

3 comments on “Ni ku wuhe muvuduko indege itangira kuva ku butaka?

  1. Methusela says:

    Thanks for interesting information.

  2. Tigana says:

    Very interesting article! Thanks

  3. Yvonne says:

    Ndaryohewe! Ujye ukomeza utubwire byinshi ku ndege n’imikorere yazo.
    Urakoze cyane Mr Cyril

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